Satellite Cyber Resilience Whitepaper

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  • Author: Jordan Plotnek, Professor Jill Slay
Contemporary cyber-attacks are increasing in frequency and sophistication with growing impacts such as large-scale privacy breaches, theft of intellectual property (IP), significant financial losses for businesses, and reputational damage. Cyber exploits can range from simplistic and opportunistic phishing campaigns to complex, covert and persistent attacks over time involving malicious actors with access to highly-skilled teams of hackers and advanced tools and resources. The rapid commercialisation of space, and increased ease and lowering costs associated with launching satellites into space, has resulted in global supply chains of privatised satellite networks for commercial and military purposes. The Internet of Things (IoT) and associated connectivity with satellite networks has also created numerous vulnerabilities, which raises questions of how contemporary cyber-attacks could potentially impact satellites and the space security domain. This whitepaper presents a novel Satellite Cyber Resilience Taxonomy derived from related contemporary space security and cyber-resilience literature. A taxonomy-guided research roadmap for SmartSat CRC is then proposed based on the identified literature gaps. The proposed research roadmap is based on four key satellite sub-systems: radio-link security; space hardware security; ground station security; and operations security, which are then further segmented and discussed according to the satellite resilience taxonomy.
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Space Missions - A list of all Space Missions

esa

Name Date
Altius 01 May, 2025
AWS 01 Mar, 2024
Eutelsat Quantum 30 Jul, 2021
Sentinel 6 21 Nov, 2020
Cheops 18 Dec, 2019
EDRS 06 Aug, 2019
Small Geostationary Satellite 17 Nov, 2018
BepiColombo 20 Oct, 2018
Aeolus 22 Aug, 2018
Sentinel 3B 25 Apr, 2018

isro

Name Date
EOS-2 07 Aug, 2022
EOS-4 14 Feb, 2022
EOS-3 12 Aug, 2021
EOS-1 07 Nov, 2020
RISAT-2BR1 11 Dec, 2019
Cartosat-3 27 Nov, 2019
Chandrayaan II 06 Sep, 2019
RISAT-2B 22 May, 2019
Resourcesat-2A 07 Dec, 2016
AstroSat 28 Sep, 2015

nasa

Name Date
NEO Surveyor 01 Jun, 2028
Libera 01 Dec, 2027
Europa Clipper 10 Oct, 2024
SpaceX CRS-29 09 Nov, 2023
Psyche 13 Oct, 2023
DSOC 13 Oct, 2023
Psyche Asteroid 05 Oct, 2023
Expedition 70 27 Sep, 2023
SpaceX Crew-7 25 Aug, 2023
STARLING 18 Jul, 2023