What do you mean by Hohmann Transfer Orbit?

1 Answer
Can you answer this question?
Sep 19, 2022

Hohmann Transfer Orbit is an elliptical orbit that is used to transfer a spacecraft between two orbits of different altitudes around a central body. It is a maneuver that was invented by German scientist Wolfman Hohmann, in 1925. This orbit is considered the most fuel-efficient way of transferring a satellite or a spacecraft from one lower circular orbit to another higher circular orbit. 

When a satellite or a spacecraft is traveling from earth to any other destination such as the Moon or Mars, the spacecraft or the satellite moving directly from Point A to Point B consumes more fuel to escape from the earth’s gravitational pull and is more expensive to achieve. 

To reduce this menace, the spacecraft is first launched in a circular orbit from earth. Once it’s in orbit, the spacecraft accelerates itself by firing its rocket motors for a brief period to create a new elliptical orbit known as the ‘Hohmann Transfer Orbit’ where the satellite or the spacecraft steers away from the earth to reach the orbit at a higher altitude. Once it reaches the apogee (farthest point from the earth) of the Hohmann transfer orbit from the earth, the satellite or the spacecraft decelerates to then stabilize itself in the higher orbit from earth.

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) used the Hohmann Transfer orbit to place the spacecraft in mars orbit. Instead of a direct exit from the earth, a slow exit with the Hohmann transfer orbit made the MOM more economical and a considerable amount of fuel was also conserved.


Space Missions - A list of all Space Missions

esa

Name Date
Altius 01 May, 2025
Arctic Weather Satellite (AWS) 01 Mar, 2024
Eutelsat Quantum 30 Jul, 2021
Sentinel 6 21 Nov, 2020
Cheops 18 Dec, 2019
EDRS 06 Aug, 2019
BepiColombo 20 Oct, 2018
Aeolus 22 Aug, 2018
Sentinel 3B 25 Apr, 2018
Sentinel 5 13 Oct, 2017

isro

Name Date
INSAT-3DS 17 Feb, 2024
XPoSat 01 Jan, 2024
Aditya-L1 02 Sep, 2023
DS-SAR 30 Jul, 2023
Chandrayaan-3 14 Jul, 2023
NVS-01 29 May, 2023
TeLEOS-2 22 Apr, 2023
OneWeb India-2 26 Mar, 2023
EOS-07 10 Feb, 2023
EOS-06 26 Nov, 2022

jaxa

Name Date
XRISM 07 Sep, 2023
SLIM 07 Sep, 2023
ALOS-3 07 Mar, 2023
ISTD-3 07 Oct, 2022
HTV9 21 May, 2020
HTV8 25 Sep, 2019
HTV7 23 Sep, 2018
HTV6 09 Dec, 2016
HTV5 19 Aug, 2015
HTV4 04 Aug, 2013

nasa

Name Date
NEO Surveyor 01 Jun, 2028
Libera 01 Dec, 2027
Europa Clipper 10 Oct, 2024
SpaceX CRS-29 09 Nov, 2023
Psyche 13 Oct, 2023
DSOC 13 Oct, 2023
Psyche Asteroid 05 Oct, 2023
Expedition 70 27 Sep, 2023
SpaceX Crew-7 25 Aug, 2023
STARLING 18 Jul, 2023