What is Satellite OTA Testing?

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Jan 22, 2024

Satellite OTA (Over-The-Air) testing is a method that is used to predict the performance and reliability of wireless devices equipped with embedded antennas, such as mobile phones, IoT (Internet of Things) devices, and various wearables like smartwatches. The performance of the antenna is crucial to ensure seamless wireless connectivity for OTA testing.

During OTA testing, the device under test (DUT) is positioned within an isolated test chamber to eliminate external signals. The primary objective of OTA testing is to validate that the device exhibits optimal wireless performance across diverse scenarios. Several factors including material selection, component placement, and intended usage, can influence wireless device performance. Consequently, devices are tested in different scenarios based on their intended purposes. 

Satellite OTA testing involves evaluating the performance of satellite communication systems in real-world conditions, replicating the challenges they face during operation. The comprehensive testing approach aims to validate various aspects, including link budgets, signal quality, interference resilience, and overall system efficiency.

Why is OTA Testing Essential?

  • Performance Validation: Satellite OTA testing is essential for validating the performance of communication payloads, antennas, and ground-based systems. OTA testing is instrumental in validating the performance of embedded antennas and wireless communication systems. It helps identify potential issues such as signal degradation, interference, and link budget deviations. This is imperative to ensure seamless wireless connectivity, a pivotal factor influencing consumers' purchasing decisions.
  • Real-world Simulation: Simulating real-world conditions is crucial for satellite testing. OTA testing allows engineers to replicate the effects of atmospheric conditions, orbital variations, and interference scenarios, providing a more accurate assessment of system performance. The test chamber used in OTA testing isolates the device under test (DUT) from external signals, allowing for a controlled environment that simulates real-world conditions. This realistic simulation is vital for identifying and addressing potential wireless connectivity issues.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Satellite systems must adhere to stringent regulatory standards. OTA testing ensures compliance with frequency allocation, power limits, and other regulations set by international bodies, preventing signal interference with other systems.
  • Early Detection of Design Errors: Conducting OTA testing in the early stages of product development helps in identifying and rectifying design errors promptly. The proactive approach avoids costly post-launch issues, protecting a company's reputation and minimizing recall costs.

Methodologies & Types of Satellite OTA Tests

  • Total Radiated Power (TRP): Measures the power radiated by the device's antenna in various orientations and frequencies, ensuring compliance with regulations and maximizing effective communication.
  • Total Isotropic Sensitivity (TIS): Determines the minimum signal strength required for the device to maintain a reliable connection, assessing its receiver sensitivity and coverage area.
  • Antenna Radiation Pattern Measurement: Visualizes the spatial distribution of the antenna's radiated power, identifying any potential weaknesses or directional biases.
  • Interference Testing: Evaluates the device's susceptibility to interference from other signals, ensuring coexistence with other satellite systems and terrestrial radio networks.
  • Functional Testing: Verifies the device's ability to perform its intended functions, such as data transmission, voice calls, and navigation, under simulated satellite communication conditions.
  • Near-Field and Far-Field Testing: Satellite OTA testing employs near-field and far-field testing methodologies. Near-field testing is suitable for small antennas and involves measurements close to the antenna, while far-field testing is used for larger antennas and measures the radiation pattern at a considerable distance.  
  • Anechoic Chambers: Anechoic chambers are crucial for OTA testing, providing an environment free from external interference. These specially designed chambers eliminate external electromagnetic interference, creating a controlled environment for accurate signal measurements. These shielded chambers simulate free-space conditions, allowing accurate measurement of antenna performance without reflections.
  • Dynamic Testing: Dynamic testing involves assessing satellite systems under changing conditions, such as orbital variations, satellite movement, and atmospheric disturbances. This ensures that the satellite can adapt and maintain optimal performance in dynamic environments.
  • RF Signal Simulators: These advanced instruments mimic the signal characteristics of various satellite constellations, including signal strength, modulation type, and carrier frequency.
  • Positioners and Rotators: To simulate a device's movement relative to the satellite, specialized robots move the device under test (DUT) along predefined trajectories.
  • Measurement Instruments: Power meters, spectrum analyzers, and bit error rate testers capture critical performance parameters like received signal strength, transmit power, and communication quality.

Satellite OTA Testing Procedure

The OTA testing process involves measuring the entire signal path and antenna performance of the device. The evaluation of a cellular device's radiated RF performance involves measuring the transmit power at various locations surrounding the device. A three-dimensional pattern characterization of the transmitter performance of the device is assembled by analyzing the data from the spatially distributed measurements. The assessment of a cellular device's receiver performance entails measuring its effective receiver sensitivity at different locations surrounding the device, utilizing metrics such as Bit Error Rate (BER), Frame Error Rate (FER), or other error criteria. A three-dimensional pattern characterization of the receiver performance of the device is assembled by analyzing the data from the spatially distributed measurements. Depending on the type of wireless device being tested, measurements should be made in the following configurations:

• In a free-space setup, the device is directly positioned on a low dielectric support.

• In a head and hand phantom arrangement which involves placing the device within a hand phantom, juxtaposed against a head phantom.

• In a hand phantom-only configuration entails placing the device solely within a hand phantom.

• In a forearm phantom-only scenario, the wearable device is positioned on a forearm phantom.

Test Plan:

The OTA testing process begins with creating a comprehensive test plan. This plan outlines the systems to be measured, the bands involved, the intended usage scenarios for the device under test, and the need for additional control software.

  • Define systems to be measured.
  • Specify bands for measurement.
  • Determine device usage scenarios.
  • Assess the need for additional control software.

Preparing for OTA Testing: Before initiating the OTA test, basic checks are performed on the DUT, ensuring it is fully charged and has internet access if required. The test chamber is prepared by selecting the appropriate testing instruments.

  • Conduct basic checks on the device.
  • Prepare the test chamber.
  • Perform reference testing to ensure accuracy: Reference testing is crucial to verify the proper functioning of the test setup. This involves measuring a known antenna's performance within the chamber to ensure accurate and consistent results.

Attach the DUT to the test chamber: The DUT is attached to a test chamber using test phantom hands or an actual human hand. The positions of the device must account for real-life usage scenarios, such as wearing the smartwatch on the left or right wrist.

Test Phase:

The OTA test simulates real-life radio wave propagation conditions within an anechoic chamber, eliminating external interference. A software-controlled radio connection is established between the DUT and the test equipment, measuring sensitivity, and radiated transmission power accurately.

  • Simulate real-life radio wave propagation conditions in an anechoic chamber.
  • Establish a radio connection between the DUT and test equipment using specialized software.


After completing the OTA testing, the results are reported using software tools. This tool facilitates the visualization and analysis of antenna measurement results, presenting data in easily understandable formats. It ensures efficient data storage and access for customers through a web browser and cloud service.

  • Utilize software tools for storing, visualizing, and analyzing antenna measurement results.
  • Present results in easily understandable formats with graphs and charts.
  • Facilitate effortless access to database information for customers.

Challenges in Satellite OTA Testing

  • Size and Complexity: Large satellite systems pose challenges in OTA testing due to their size and complexity. Developing test setups that accurately replicate these conditions while maintaining precision is a significant challenge.
  • Signal Interference: Mitigating signal interference from other satellites, terrestrial sources, or atmospheric conditions is crucial for accurate OTA testing. Advanced filtering techniques and interference analysis tools are employed to address this challenge.
  • Complex Signal Simulation: Accurately mimicking the dynamic and varying nature of satellite signals remains a challenge, requiring continuous advancements in simulation technologies.
  • Standardization Efforts: The lack of universally accepted industry standards for Satellite OTA testing poses challenges for consistent and comparable results across different laboratories.
  • Cost and Resource Intensity: OTA testing facilities, including anechoic chambers and specialized equipment, can be resource-intensive. Cost-effective approaches and collaboration among industry stakeholders can help address this challenge.
  • Integration with Emerging Technologies: As satellite communication platforms evolve with advancements like Low Earth Orbit (LEO) constellations and integrated terrestrial networks, Satellite OTA testing methods need to adapt and grow to encompass the complexities of these new architectures.

Advancements in Satellite OTA Testing

  • Software-defined Testing: The integration of software-defined testing tools allows for more flexible and scalable OTA testing. Software-defined approaches enable rapid reconfiguration of test scenarios, reducing testing time and costs.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Integration: AI plays a significant role in automating data analysis and identifying patterns in large datasets generated during OTA testing. Machine learning algorithms enhance the efficiency and accuracy of test result interpretation.
  • Virtual Testing Environments: Advancements in virtual testing environments enable engineers to simulate satellite OTA testing scenarios in a digital space. This aids in preliminary testing and validation before physical testing, saving time and resources.