Characterization of Satellite Frequency Up-converters

Download Whitepaper
  • Author: M. Naseef, R. MiniHold
Frequency converters which use one or more mixers are fundamental for any communication- or electronic ranging system to down-convert an RF signal to IF or baseband or to up-convert a baseband or IF signal to RF. They include filters, normally selective band pass filters, to get rid of strong adjacent channel signals, local oscillator feed-through, image responses and other mixing products. For not to degrade transmission quality of a communication system these filters must have well -controlled amplitude, phase and group-delay responses. Especially phase- and group-delay linearity is essential for low bit error rates of communication systems or high target resolution for radar systems. In order to characterize a frequency converter, a key characteristic is the relative and/or absolute group delay. In addition intermodulation products (3rd order), phase noise, 1dB compression point, conversion gain and spurious outputs are also interesting parameters to consider for measurement. Relative phase and group delay can be measured using the so-called reference or golden mixer technique, as long as the local oscillator is accessible. However, due to increasing integration and miniaturization often neither the local oscillator (LO) nor a common reference frequency signal is accessible.
Please note: By downloading a white paper, the details of your profile might be shared with the creator of the content and you may be contacted by them directly.

Space Missions - A list of all Space Missions


Name Date
Altius 01 May, 2025
AWS 01 Mar, 2024
Eutelsat Quantum 30 Jul, 2021
Sentinel 6 21 Nov, 2020
Cheops 18 Dec, 2019
EDRS 06 Aug, 2019
Small Geostationary Satellite 17 Nov, 2018
BepiColombo 20 Oct, 2018
Aeolus 22 Aug, 2018
Sentinel 3B 25 Apr, 2018


Name Date
EOS-2 07 Aug, 2022
EOS-4 14 Feb, 2022
EOS-3 12 Aug, 2021
EOS-1 07 Nov, 2020
RISAT-2BR1 11 Dec, 2019
Cartosat-3 27 Nov, 2019
Chandrayaan II 06 Sep, 2019
RISAT-2B 22 May, 2019
Resourcesat-2A 07 Dec, 2016
AstroSat 28 Sep, 2015


Name Date
NEO Surveyor 01 Jun, 2028
Libera 01 Dec, 2027
Europa Clipper 10 Oct, 2024
SpaceX CRS-29 09 Nov, 2023
Psyche 13 Oct, 2023
DSOC 13 Oct, 2023
Psyche Asteroid 05 Oct, 2023
Expedition 70 27 Sep, 2023
SpaceX Crew-7 25 Aug, 2023
STARLING 18 Jul, 2023